Destinations > Europe > Italy

Italy History

Flag of Italy
 

Greeks settled in the southern tip of the Italian Peninsula in the eighth and seventh centuries B.C.; Etruscans, Romans, and others inhabited the central and northern mainland. The peninsula subsequently was unified under the Roman Republic. The neighboring islands came under Roman control by the third century B.C.; by the first century A.D., the Roman Empire effectively dominated the Mediterranean world. After the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West in the fifth century A.D., the peninsula and islands were subjected to a series of invasions, and political unity was lost. Italy became an oft-changing succession of small states, principalities, and kingdoms, which fought among themselves and were subject to ambitions of foreign powers. Popes of Rome ruled central Italy; rivalries between the popes and the Holy

Roman Emperors, who claimed Italy as their domain, often made the peninsula a battleground. The commercial prosperity of northern and central Italian cities, beginning in the 11th century, combined with the influence of the Renaissance, mitigated somewhat the effects of these medieval political rivalries. Although Italy declined after the 16th century, the Renaissance had strengthened the idea of a single Italian nationality. By the early 19th century, a nationalist movement developed and led to the reunification of Italy--except for Rome--in the 1860s. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II of the House of Savoy was proclaimed King of Italy. Rome was incorporated in 1870. From 1870 until 1922, Italy was a constitutional monarchy with a parliament elected under limited suffrage.

20th-Century History

During World War I, Italy renounced its standing alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary and, in 1915, entered the war on the side of the Allies. Under the postwar settlement, Italy received some former Austrian territory along the northeast frontier. In 1922, Benito Mussolini came to power and, over the next few years, eliminated political parties, curtailed personal liberties, and installed a fascist dictatorship termed the Corporate State. The king, with little or no effective power, remained titular head of state.

Italy allied with Germany and declared war on the United Kingdom and France in 1940. In 1941, Italy--with the other Axis powers, Germany and Japan--declared war on the United States and the Soviet Union. Following the Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943, the King dismissed Mussolini and appointed Marshal Pietro Badoglio as Premier. The Badoglio government declared war on Germany, which quickly occupied most of the country and freed Mussolini, who led a brief-lived regime in the north. An anti-fascist popular resistance movement grew during the last two years of the war, harassing German forces before they were driven out in April 1945. A 1946 plebiscite ended the monarchy, and a constituent assembly was elected to draw up plans for the republic.

Under the 1947 peace treaty, minor adjustments were made in Italy's frontier with France, the eastern border area was transferred to Yugoslavia, and the area around the city of Trieste was designated a free territory. In 1954, the free territory, which had remained under the administration of U.S.-U.K. forces (Zone A, including the city of Trieste) and Yugoslav forces (Zone B), was divided between Italy and Yugoslavia, principally along the zonal boundary. This arrangement was made permanent by the Italian-Yugoslav Treaty of Osimo, ratified in 1977 (currently being discussed by Italy, Slovenia, and Croatia). Under the 1947 peace treaty, Italy relinquished its overseas territories and certain Mediterranean islands.

The Roman Catholic Church's status in Italy has been determined, since its temporal powers ended in 1870, by a series of accords with the Italian Government. Under the Lateran Pacts of 1929, which were confirmed by the present constitution, Vatican City is recognized by Italy as an independent, sovereign entity. While preserving that recognition, in 1984, Italy and the Vatican updated several provisions of the 1929 accords. Included was the end of Roman Catholicism as Italy's formal state religion.


Information by U.S. Department of State


Italy Gallery

Venice before sunset #2 Venice before sunset #1 Venice, Murano Glass Venice, Rialto Bridge 

There are 18 pictures in our Italy gallery. Click the thumbnail to enter.


Italy Articles

Travelling Tuscany - a short guide to the most charming region in Italy

As one of the most popular holiday destinations in Europe, Tuscany attracts more and more visitors each year. Like other popular tourist regions, Tuscany, too, offers a wide range of attractions, many sights and different landscapes.

« read full article »





Wired Tourist Articles

Great Places To Stay In Barcelona

A most populous and the capital city of Catalonia Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain and the major economic center. It is one of the most lively and elegant cities in the world. The city has much more to see and offer from the historical buildings to skyscrapers, beaches, parks and museums bars, restaurant and typical Catalan dishes.

« read full article »

Phuket tours: Distinctly magical but natural

When someone is planning for a family outing or outdoor holidays, there are a lot of suitable locations which can be opted for. Especially, when one has got the opportunity of a well deserved outing after a long time work, the best spots need to be chosen so as to relax and unwind their senses.

« read full article »


Home | Travel Destinations | Travel News | Travel Directory | Volcano Tours | Gallery | Site Index | Contact WiredTourist.com
Follow us on   Follow us on YouTube  YouTube   Follow us on Flickr  Flickr   Follow us on Twitter  Twitter
©2009-2010 WiredTourist.com