384,344 sq mi (995,451 sq km)
386,662 sq mi (1,001,450 sq km)
Population (2009 est.):
Capital and largest city (2003 est.):
Cairo: 11,146,000 (metro. area); 7,629,866 (city)
Other large cities:
Alexandria - 3,891,000; Giza - 2,597,600 (part of Cairo metro area); Shubra el Khema - 1,018,000 (part of Cairo metro area); El Mahalla el Kubra - 462,300
Arabic (official), English and French widely spoken
Islam (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, Christian 1%, other 6%
Egyptian 98%, Berber, Nubian, Bedouin, and Beja 1%, Greek, Armenian, other European 1%
GMT+2 (daylight saving time +1 hour)
220V AC (2-pin "europlag")
The Arab Republic of Egypt is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Western Asia. Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel
to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.
Egypt is one of the most populous countries in Africa and the Middle East. The great majority of its estimated 83 million live near the banks of the Nile River, in an area of about 40,000 square kilometers (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable agricultural land is found. The large areas of the Sahara Desert are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with the majority spread across the densely-populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
Egypt is famous for its ancient civilization and some of the world's most famous monuments, including the Giza pyramid complex and its Great Sphinx. The southern city of Luxor contains numerous ancient artifacts, such as the Karnak Temple and the Valley of the Kings. Egypt is widely regarded as an important political and cultural nation of the Middle East.